1. Hot Tearing – Causes and Cures
Appearance of Hot Tears/Temperature of Tearing/ Mechanism of Tearing/Methods of Preventing Hot Tearing/General Comments.
2. Special Refractory Sands
Why Use Sands Other than Silica Sand? /Production of the Special Sands/Physical and Technical Characteristics/ General Comments.
3. Mould and Core Paints for Steel Foundry Use
Purpose of mould and Core Paints/ Requirements of a Paint/ Refractories for Paints/Paint Formulations/Paint Preparation/Paint Control in the Foundry /Paint Applications/ Coating and casting Defects/ Special Tests for Paints/Safety Precautions.
4. Metal Penetration and Casting Surface Roughness
Cause and Mechanism/Control of Sand Variables to Prevent Penetration.
5. Fluidity of Steel
Fluidity (Pouring temperature, Steel composition, Foundry practices)/Final Comments.
6. Heat Treatment Furnaces and their Operation
Type of Heat Treatment Furnace/Furnace Temperature/ Heat Transfer/Fuels and Burners/ Furnace Atmosphere/ Furnace Pressure/Furnace Loading/Furnace Design/ Technical Control.
7. Heat Treatment Practice
The Purpose of Heat Treatment/Definitions/Heat Treatment Temperature/Heat Treatment Time/Heating Rate/Cooling Rate/Technical Control.
8. Bonding Clays for Foundry Sands
Bentonites for Steel Foundry Use/Amount of Bentonite Required/Mixing Clay and Sand/Storage/Dead Clay/ Consumption and Availability of Bentonites/Acceptance Specification.
9. Compaction of Sands
Effect of Compaction/Sand Flowability /Method of Compaction/Control over Compaction of Green Sand Moulds/Compaction of Cold-Set Moulding Mixes.
10. Grading or Grain Size Distribution of Sands
Standard Sieves Employed/Grain Fineness Number – Average Grain Size/Size and Distribution of Sands/Control of Grading/Sand Sampling/Method for Determining the Clay Content of Sands/Method for Determining the Sieve Analysis of Sands.
11. Scabbing and Spalling Defects
Formation and Cause/Expansion Scabbing/Methods of Preventing Expansion Scabs/Spalling Defects.
12. Silica Sands – their Characteristices, Availability and Technical Requirements
Definition of a Sand/Silica Sand/Production and Availability of Silica Sand/Technical Requirements of Silica Sands/General Comments.
13. Sand Segreation
Mechanism of Segregation/Some Aspects of Sand Segregation /Measuring Segregation/Minimising Segregation.
14. Contraction or Shrinkage Characteristics of Steels
Liquid Contraction/ Solidification. Contraction/Solid Contraction/Contraction Stresses.
15. Measurement and Control of Liquid Metal Temperatures
Why Control Metal Temperature?/Temperature Measurement / Thermocouples / Radiation pyrometers/Control of Liquid Metal temperatures/ Measurement of Pouring Stream Temperatures/Summary.
16. Additives to Greensands
Cereal Binders/Effect of Cereal Binders on Casting Surface Quality/Use of Cereals in Moulding Mixes/ Quality of Cereal Binders/Substitutes for Cereal Binders.
17. Non-Destructive Testing of Steel Castings
Techniques for the Detection of Surface Defects/ Techniques for the Detection of Internal Defects.
18. Steel Scrap and its Control
Why Control Scrap Quality?/Quality Control Methods/ Alternatives to the Use of Scrap/Raw Iron/Directly Reduced (DRI) or Pre-reduced Iron.
19. The Meaning and use of Threshold Limit
Definitions and Interpretation/Comment.
20. Gases from Moulding Materials
Vapours/Gases/Important Features that Control the Amount of Gas Evolved/Gas Evolution Control with Different Sands/Amount of Gas to Cause Defects/ Measurement of Gas evolution/Composition of Evolved Gases/Removal of Evolved Gases/Factors Affectingsand Permeability/Venting of Cores.
21. Control of Greensand Moulding
Check Sand and Additives/ Good Sand Preparation/Moisture Control/Facing/Backing Sands vs. Unit Sands/ Control of Facing/Backing Sand Practices/Control of Composition / Unit Sand Control Tests / Mould Control.
22. Residual Stresses in Steel Castings
Definition of Residual Stress/Residual Stress Measurement/Heat Treatment/Shot Blasting/Welding/Residual Stresses and Service Performance.
23. The Measurement of Delta-Ferrite in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels
Methods of Measuring. Delta-Ferrite/Magnetic/ Metallography/ X-Ray/ Calculation/Summary.
24. Metallographic Specimen Preparation
25. Characteristics and Control of Cold Settling Sands
Cold-Setting Sands / Cold-Setting Binders / Binder Selection & Control/Sand Selection and Control/Cold – Setting Mixes/Control Sand Temperature /Control Sand Compaction/General Mould & Core Control/ Mould and Core Paints/Problems and their Control.
26. Knock-off Feeder Heads
Principle of Knock-off Heads/Guidelines for Dimensioning a Feeder Head Neck/Which Size of Neck to Use/Which Shape of Neck to Use/Feeder Neck Cores/Shell Cores/Oil Sand, Cold-Set Sand, Sodium Silicate Bonded, and Refractory Cores/Moulding and Pouring Procedure/Metallurgical Problems/Knocking-Off Feeder Heads/Restricted Necks in Green Sand/introduction of Knock-Off Feeder Heads.
27. The CO2-Silicate Process, its Characteristics and Control
Selection and Control/Sand Selection and Control/ Mixing Practice/Mixed Sand Bench Life/pattern and Corebox Quality /Control of the Gassing Operation/ Probe/Cup Gassing/Hoods/Board Gassing/Through Pattern Gassing/Vacuum and Modular Gassing/Storage Properties/Mould and Core Paints/Sand Reclamation Safety Precautions
28. Sand Reclamation
Justification for Sand Reclamation/Debit and Credit of Reclamation Processes/Clay Bonded Sands/Wet v DryReclamation/Control.
29. Erosion of Moulds and Cores
Erosion/Effect on Casting Quality/Mechanism of Erosion/Control Measures to Prevent Erosion/Erosion Resistance of Different Binder Systems/Protection of Sand Surface/improved Pouring Practice/Failure of theMould Surface.
30. The Use of External and Internal Chills
Types of Chills/External Chills/Dimensions/Positioning/ Calculation/Control/internal Chills/Size, Shape and Use.
31. Gas Porosity in Steel Castings
Surface Blowholes/Deep internal Blowholes/Gases that Cause internal Blowholes/Summary -Preventive Action.
32. Shrinkage Cavities
Cause and Prevention of Shrinkage Cavities/Shrinkage Remote from Feeder Heads/Prevention of ShrinkageCavity Defects.
33. Exogenous Inclusions – Their Occurrence and Control
Exogenous inclusions/Nature and Sources of Exogenous inclusions/Essential Controls and Action to Avoid Exogenous inclusions/Prevention of Refractory Particles, Extraneous Slags and Oxidation of Metal Streams/ Trapping/Checking Procedures.
34. Deoxidation and Inclusion Formation in Steel Castings
Purpose of Deoxidation/What, Where and How Much?/ Choice/Making Clean Steel/Controlling indigenousinclusions.
35. Intergranular Fracture in Steel Castings
Ductile Fracture/Cleavage and intergranular Fracture/ Effect-of Processing Variables on IF.
36. Noise Specifications for New Plant
Instrumentation/Types of Noise and their Measurement/ Measuring Positions/Target Levels/presentation of Re- suits/Clause Regarding Noise Reduction Techniques/ Reference List of Basic Documents.
37. Protective Wear – Eye Protectors
Noise Hazardous Departments?/Can Noise be Reduced at Source?/What Type of Ear Protectors are Available.?/Has the Ear Protector been Tested to BS?/Can Ear- Muffs be Worn with Protective Head Gear?/Comfort/ Documentation/Fitting/Cleaning/Encouragement.
38. Prevention of Vibration White Finger (VWF)
Legal background/Description of Condition/Engineering Techniques/Environmental Control/Admin. Measures/ Medical Examinations/ Advice to Employees at Risk.
39. Foundry Sand-Tests – What do they Mean?
Testing of New Sand/Clay Bonded Sand/Oil Bonded Core Sands/Shell Moulding Sands/CO2 -Process Sand/ Cold-Settling Sand/Moulds & Cores/High Temperature Tests/Testing & Control.
40. Guide to the Effect of Foundry Variables on Casting Quality
In Table format covering variables that can occur during:- Melting, Mould Making, Core Making, and up to the Knock-out stage.
41. Abrasive Wear in Steel Castings
Metallurgical Aspects of Wear/Wear Mechanism/ Microstructure and Abrasive Wear/Wear Testing Methods& Development/Wear Tests/Generic Types of Wear Resisting Cast Steels -The Traditional Wear ResistingAlloys/Surface Treatment for improvement of Abrasive Wear Resistance of Steel Castings -Possibilities for the Future/Conclusions.
42. Controlling the Dimensions of Steel Castings
Dimensional Accuracy/Mould Production/Core Production/Fettling and Heat Treatment of Steel Castings.
43. Finning and Flash on Steel Castings
Finning Defects/Methods of Preventing Finning/Flash Defects/Harmful Effects of Flash/Common Causes ofFlash/Prevention of Flash.
44. Under-Riser Cracks in Steel Castings
Causative Factors/Segregation Effects in Steel Castings/ Experience with Full Section Risers/Experience with Necked Down Risers/Riser Feeding Aid Contamination Effects/ Means of Control.
45. Noise Terminology for Foundrymen
The Decibel/General Terms/Hearing Conservation Noise Control.
46. Precautions Against Heat Stress
Medical Effects/Occupations at Risk/Legislative Duties/ Assessment of Heat Stress/ Precautions Against HeatStress.
47. Improved Standards of Foundry Lighting
Hazards of Bad Lighting/Legislative Duties/ Recommended Lighting Levels/Lighting Surveys/Glare/ Natural Daylight/Artificial Lighting.
48. The Measurement of Airborne Dust and Particulate Fume
How do you Sample Airborne Dust or Fume?/Filter/ Filter Holder/Elutriator/Sampling Pump/Practical Usageof the Equipment
49. Quench Cracks in Steel Castings
Hardenability and Restraint Considerations/Means of Quench Cracking Control by Selection of Quench Practice
50. Hydrogen Cracks in Steel Castings
Hydrogen in Steel/Control of Hydrogen in Steelmaking/ Control of Hydrogen by Degassing Treatments.